Warning! Sodium Reaction with Dilute Acids
Sodium reacts with dilute acids explosively and experiments with these substances should never be attempted.
Sodium Chlorine Reaction (Chloride)
Sodium chlorine (NaCl) which is common table salt that is used as a seasoning and food preservative and in the manufacture of chemicals, soap and glass. Elemental chlorine is produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Sodium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Sodium + Dilute hydrochloric acid —> Sodium chloride + Hydrogen
Sodium Hydroxide Reaction - Sodium and Water Reaction
Mixing with water produces sodium hydroxide. When a small piece of Sodium is added to water, it moves about on the water surface. Its size gradually decreases. Hydrogen gas is produced during the reaction and an alkaline solution is formed formed called sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also called caustic soda or lye, which is used in the production of chemicals, soaps and in petroleum refining.
Sodium + Water —> Sodium Hydroxide solution + Hydrogen
Sodium Nitrate Reaction
Sodium nitrate (NaNO3), also called Chile saltpetre and caliche, used in solid rocket propellants and in the production of explosives. Sodium reacts with dilute nitric acid to form sodium nitrate and hydrogen gas. Sodium nitrate can be used in the production of nitric acid by combining it with sulfuric acid which can be used to make a hybrid aqua regia that dissolves gold and other metals
Sodium + Dilute Nitric acid —> Sodium Nitrate + Hydrogen
Sodium Reaction with Oxygen - Oxide
Sodium burns vigorously in oxygen, so only gently heating is required to make it burn. Burning sodium in air will produce Na2O and about 20% sodium peroxide Na2O2. It gives a golden yellow flame to produce a white powder. Mixing with water produces sodium hydroxide. Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O and is produced by the reaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide, sodium peroxide, or sodium nitrite, relying on the reduction of something by sodium.
Sodium + Oxygen —> Sodium Oxide
Sodium Bicarbonate Reaction
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) also called bicarbonate of soda or baking soda, is used in the manufacture of fizzy drinks, fire extinguishers and famously as an antacid. Sodium bicarbonate is a base and reacts with acids in what is called neutralization, because both the acid and the base are converted into more neutral substances. The process of Neutralization produces carbon dioxide gas, which bubbles when vinegar (an acid) and baking soda are mixed. The production of the gas is what causes cakes to rise. When Sodium bicarbonate is mixed with water it neutralizes excess stomach acid. It reacts with acid to produce carbon dioxide.
Some examples of a chemical reaction include most commonly burning, fermentation, tarnishing and rusting. There are several different types of Chemical reaction which have been detailed below:
- Substitution reaction
- Double displacement reaction
- Acid-base reaction
- Combustion reaction
- Combination reaction
- Decomposition reaction
Refer to our Chemical Reaction article for additional facts and information providing the different types of reactions, examples of reaction and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction.